Public awareness about the health hazards of dietary cholesterol began in the 1970s. Consumer perception of eggs as a high cholesterol food drove a decline in consumption eggs. Egg industry responded with a re-engineered alternative to conventional eggs. High alpha-linolenic flaxseed and fish oils rich in omega-3 fatty acids were added to chicken feed. The resulting “designer eggs” has not reduced cholesterol, but it did contain an increased amount of fatty acids known to compensate cholesterol risk. In 1993 held the FDA against letting the labels on designer egg cartons to require heart health benefits, but designer eggs continued to gain market share. 17 April 202C USDA Weekly Retail Shell Eggs and egg products Feature activity report stated that omega-3 eggs accounted for 30 percent of last week’s shell egg market
Fatty acids are straight carbon chains with hydrogen atoms bonded on both sides of the carbon atoms. When carbon bond areas that are not bound to hydrogen, the adjacent carbon atoms in the chain double bonded. If all potential hydrogen bonding sites are glued, so the fat is “saturated” with hydrogen. If a potential hydrogen bond is absent, then the fat is monounsaturated. If more than one hydrogen is absent, then the fat is polyunsaturated. The term “omega-3” refers to a specific carbon bond area not hydrogen bonded.
Fatty acids in Designer Eggs
Flaxseed contains alpha-linolenic acid (LNA), a poly-unsaturated “essential” fatty acid. Essential fatty acids must be consumed in the diet and can not be manufactured in the body. The body converts LNA of omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). As first noted by Caston and Leeson and published in “Poultry Science” in 1990, in eggs of hens fed flaxseed, persists alpha-linolenic acid from flax seed into the egg yolk, and is the main fatty acid in the yolk. Higher levels of EPA and DHA in egg yolk confirms that hens can metabolize alpha-linolenic acid to omega-3 that persists for designer eggs.
As first reported by Dyerburg, Bang and Corner in “American Journal of Clinical Nutrition” in September 1975, Greenland Eskimo groups that used a high-fat diet of lard and fish had significantly lower coronary atherosclerosis than Americans and Western Europeans. They concluded that high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish was offsetting the health risks of high fat lard. Soon omega-3 fish oil was recommended for inclusion in the diet of patients with inflammatory diseases and particularly for diabetics at risk for atherosclerosis.
Cholesterol is used in every cell of the body and is a component of vitamin D, cell membranes, bile and sterol hormones, including estrogen and androgen. The official position of the American Heart Association is the biosynthesis of about 1,000 milligrams of cholesterol each day of human liver meets all the body’s cholesterol needs. A highly saturated fat (animal fat) diet leads to increased cholesterol biosynthesis, and in conjunction with additional cholesterol in the diet may lead to deposits of cholesterol in the arteries and heart disease.
Cholesterol in eggs
A conventional egg contains 213 milligrams of cholesterol, so a three-egg omelet at Sunday brunch is more than twice the recommended daily dietary cholesterol intake for those with normal levels of “bad” LDL cholesterol (low density lipoprotein). That’s not counting the cheese omelet or cream in your coffee. Eggs are an excellent source of complete protein and a balanced source of vitamins than vitamin C. A eggs for breakfast is an acceptable choice for a person with normal LDL, but the cholesterol in your breakfast to be accounted against cholesterol consumed at other meals during the day.